project.pngMercury- the closest planet to the Sun.

Mercury's mass is 5% of Earth's. It has a diameter of 4876 kilometers or 3030 miles. Mercury has an escape velocity of 15450 kilometers per hour (9600 miles per hour). Mercury was first thought to have an atmosphere made up of hydrgen and helium. It was later discovered that Mercury has no true atmosphere. Mercury's temperature can reach 425 degrees Celsius during the day and drop to negative 170 degrees Celsius at night. Mercury has several cliffs and craters on its surface. This planet's average density is 5420 kilogrames per cubic meter. Mercury is thought to have an iron core. On its surface you can find basaltic and anorthotic rocks. Mercury is home to the Caloris Basin whose diameter is 1550 kilometers (963 miles).

History of Mercury Mercury got its name from the Roman god, Hermes. Scientists think it may have received its name because it moves so quickly across the sky.
Mercury has been known since the time of the Sumerians. ( 3rd millennium BC)

Caloris Basin



Mercury was named after the roman version of the god Hermes. Hermes was known to deliver messages, and protect travelers and merchants. There is a possibility that Mercury was named after Hermes because of his speed traveling around the sun (Kids Astronomy 1).
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. Since Mercury is so close to the sun it hasn’t been easily explored. The 57 million kilometer distance from the sun causes Mercury to have extreme temperatures that vary. This causes the closest area to the sun to be even harder to be explored (Kids Astronomy 1).
Mercury has no moons along without an atmosphere. There is almost no air around Mercury and all the gases that would make up the atmosphere are quickly released into space. This makes it impossible for Mercury to have an actual atmosphere. (childrens Museum).
For Mercury to make one rotation it take 586,461 day. Mercury’s revolution around the sun takes 87,969 days. Earth’s rotation only takes 24 hours and it’s revolution around the sun is 365 days in comparison to Mercury (Kids Astronomy 1).
Mariner 10 was the first space probe to visit Mercury from 1974- 1975. Mariner 10 flew by 3 time during the year span. After reviewing the pictures it was found that only 45% of the surface of Mercury had been mapped. They concluded that Mercury was to close to the sun for it to bee safely observed. Then in 2004 a fly by messenger flew by Mercury finding new things about Mercury. It was discovered from images and data the Mercury had a unique, geologically diverse world with a magnetosphere. This new finding was very different from the one discovered in 1975 by Mariner 10 (NASA 1).


Interesting Facts

If you have a weight of 110 pounds and you decided to go to Mercury, you would only weigh 41.5 pounds there! If you weigh 170 pounds and you went to Mercury you would have a weight of 64.2 pounds. If you were born on February 19, 1996 your next birthday on Mercury would be February 7, 2010. If your date of birth is June 19, 1995 your next birthday on Mercury is February 26, 2010. If you have a birthday of July 10, 1995 your next birthday on Mercury is March 19, 2010. If you wanted to make a model of the solar system for a science fair project with the sun measuring 615 milimeters, Mercury would only measure 2.1 milimeters in diameter.


Works Cited

“Field Guide to the Universe.” Cosmic Quest. 1999. The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis. 28 January 2010.

Greicius, Tony and Martin Perez. “Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology.” Bring the Universe to you. 28 January 2010.

“Solar System Exploration.” National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 28 January 2010. NASA. 28 January 2010.

“Solar System.” Astronomy for kids. 1998- 2009. 28 January 2010. 2010.

Hipschman, Ron. "Your Weight on Other Worlds". Exploratorium. 27 January 2010. <>.

Hipschman, Ron. "Your Age on Other Worlds". Exploratorium. 27 January 2010. <>.

Hipschamn, Ron."Build a Solar System". Exploratorium. 27 January 2010. <>.

"Welcome to the Planets:Mercury". 10 May 2005. 27 January 2010. <>.

and Olivia Ruble